Results: Study results were then synthesized, qualitatively, and within the current research, there is overwhelming support of take-home naloxone programs being effective in preventing fatal opioid overdoses. Cost-effectiveness of distributing naloxone to heroin users for lay overdose reversal. Because of the overwhelming statistics relayed above in regard to the opioid epidemic and opioid-related deaths (ORDs), a systematic review was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of THKs and their effect in reducing mortality. Purpose: Opioid abuse and overdose is a public health concern as it relates to increased morbidity and mortality. (2016). Study results were then synthesized, qualitatively, and within the current research, there is overwhelming support of take-home naloxone programs being effective in preventing fatal opioid overdoses. 2016 Jul;111(7):1177-87. doi: 10.1111/add.13326. However, this was not feasible to have an equal control and experimental groups as it would be unethical to withhold naloxone from future agencies that wanted to distribute naloxone to at-risk clients. Informed consent was obtained from all participants, and confidentiality was provided via anonymized data. Are take-home naloxone programmes effective? Our aim was to assess the expected outcomes and cost-effectiveness of distributing naloxone to heroin users In conclusion, the aim of this systematic review was to answer the following research question: Are THN programs effective in preventing fatal overdoses among those who abuse opioids? The studies included cohort, descriptive, and qualitative studies. The key words searched were "programs," "take-home kits," "Narcan," "Naloxone," and "mortality." Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. The participants were randomized into an NOR group and a control group that did not receive naloxone. This made it difficult to assess the effectiveness of the naloxone on the participants, which made it impossible to capture accurate data for the pilot trial (Parmar et al., 2017). Finally, one meta-analysis, "Exploring the Life-Saving Potential of Naloxone: A Systematic Review and Descriptive Meta-Analysis of Take Home Naloxone (THN) Programmes for Opioid Users," was included within this systematic review (McAuley, Aucott, & Matheson, 2015). OOPPs supply participants with THN in addition to knowledge of how to administer as well as risk factors for overdose and how to recognize, prevent, and respond to an overdose. British Medical Journal, 346(f174), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1136/bmj.f174[Context Link]. The results of this study were utilized as the catalyst for the initiation of the THN project throughout Wales. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Naloxone is known to reverse the effects of opioids in an overdose, and studies show evidence that communities with THN programs have decreased mortality from ORDs as compared with communities without these programs. Addiction. Addiction, 111(7), 1177-1187. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1111.add.13326[Context Link], Mitchell K. D., Higgins L. J. A systematic review of community opioid overdose prevention and naloxone distribution programs. The limitations for this study include the lack of randomized controlled trials, the fact that many of the study findings were from pilot programs, and the lack of follow-up with participants. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 19(4), 320-328. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3109/09687637.2012.658104[Context Link], Bird S. M., McAuley A., Perry S., Hunter C. (2016). J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in Academic Search Complete, CINHAL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and SocINDEX. One final limitation to note is that recall bias may exhibit an effect due to the retrospective design of the study.  |  Combating opioid overdose with public access to naloxone. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries. The study did find positive enrollment and, participants felt safer in their heroin use with naloxone (Parmar et al., 2017). Naloxone, 2017 Mar;69(3):340-346. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.07.027. A limitation of this study is that it was intended to be a quasi-experimental design, adding to the design's rigor. Increases in drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths-United States, 2010-2015. According to Parmar et al. Epub 2017 May 25. Sign in, July/September 2018, Volume 29 Number 3 , p 167 - 171, Mortality, The researchers were able to identify 25 applicable studies related to THN programs, of which nine were eligible for a meta-analysis. Although the purpose of this fourth systematic review, "Combating Opioid Overdose With Public Access to Naloxone," is different from the others identified, its results were supportive of overdose education programs and naloxone distribution (Mitchell & Higgins, 2016). The conclusions indicate that those communities with both high and low implementations of OEND programs had a decrease in opioid deaths as compared with those without program implementation.